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Center for Limb Loss and MoBility

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Research Investigators

Staff Biographies

William Ledoux, Ph.D.


Current Position

Research Career Scientist, VA Center for Limb Loss and MoBility, Seattle, WA

Affiliate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA

Affiliate Professor, Department of Orthopaedics & Sports Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA

Contact Information

VA Puget Sound Health Care System
VA RR&D Center, MS 151
1660 S. Columbian Way, Seattle, WA 98108
Telephone (206) 768-5347 Fax (206) 277-2127
E-mail wrledoux@uw.edu

William Ledoux 


Education

Ph.D. Engineering in Bioengineering, August 1999
University of Pennsylvania, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Philadelphia, PA
Concentrations: musculoskeletal modeling, emphasizing the foot; soft tissue biomechanics; gait analysis

M.S. Engineering in Bioengineering, August 1993
University of Pennsylvania, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Philadelphia, PA
Concentration: rehabilitation engineering

B.S. Biomedical Engineering, May 1992
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, School of Engineering, Troy, NY
Concentration: materials science Minor: management

Dr. Ledoux has helped advise graduate students from Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering and Bioengineering, and has advised five students in the Medical Student Research and Training Program.


Research Interests

Dr. Ledoux's research has been devoted to preventing limb loss, either functionally or anatomically. He has used CT, MRI, motion analysis, and more recently, a custom developed biplane fluoroscope, to quantify reduced lower limb function (i.e., functional limb loss) in different foot types (flat feet and high arched) compared to neutrally aligned feet. He has studied the functional aspects of various orthopedic foot maladies using the custom developed Robotic Gait Simulator. Additionally, he has explored functional differences between ankle fusion and ankle joint replacement for end-stage ankle arthritis. Anatomical limb loss prevention has involved quantifying the mechanical, histological and biochemical differences between normal and diabetic plantar soft tissue and foot ligaments. Dr. Ledoux has also developed a patient-specific finite element foot model, including customized anatomy and tissue properties, for the purpose of quantifying the effects of increased tissue stiffness and foot deformity on internal tissue stresses. Finally, Dr. Ledoux has explored the complex relationship between foot type and diabetic ulceration.


Notes:
  • The following bibliography only includes items from 2013 or later.
  • The following symbols apply to all categories: †corresponding author, §primary advisor or direct supervisor of first author
Publications

  1. Wang  Y-N,† Lee K, Shofer JB, Ledoux WR. Histomorphological and biochemical properties of plantar soft tissue in diabetes. The Foot, 2017 Dec;33:1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.foot.2017.06.001. Epub 2017 Jun 7.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Histomorphological+and+Biochemical+Properties+of+Plantar+Soft+Tissue+in+Diabetes.
  2. Vander Griend RA, Younger ASE, Buedts K, Chiodo CP, Coetzee JC, Ledoux WR, Pinzur MS, Prasad KSRK, Queen RM, Saltzman CL, Thordarson DB. Total ankle arthroplasty: Minimum follow-up policy for reporting results and guidelines for reporting problems and complications resulting in reoperations. Foot Ankle Int. 2017 Jul;38(7):703-704. doi: 10.1177/1071100717716110. No abstract available. PMID: 28682140. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28682140
  3. Benich MR, Ledoux WR, Orendurff MS, Shofer JB, Hansen ST, Davitt J, Anderson JG, Bohay D, Coetzee JC, Maskill J, Brage M, Houghton M, Sangeorzan BJ.† Comparison of treatment outcomes of arthrodesis and two generations of ankle replacement implants. J Bone Joint Surg Am , 2017 Nov 1;99(21):1792-1800. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.16.01471.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29088033
  4. Williams ED, Stebbins MJ, Cavanagh PR, Haynor DR, Chu B, Fassbind MJ, Isvilanonda V, Ledoux WR.†,§  of patient-specific mechanical properties of diabetic and healthy plantar soft tissue from gated MRI. Proc Inst Mech Eng H. 2017 Jul;231(7):625-633. doi: 10.1177/0954411917695849. Epub 2017 Mar 17. PMID: 28661227. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=A+Preliminary+Study+of+Patient-Specific+Mechanical+Properties+of+Diabetic+and+Healthy+Plantar+Soft+Tissue+from+Gated+MRI
  5. Telfer S, Kindig M, Sangeorzan BJ, Ledoux WR. Metatarsal shape and foot type: A geometric morphometric analysis. J Biomech Eng. 2017 Mar 1;139(3). doi: 10.1115/1.4035077. PMID: 27802481. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Metatarsal+shape+and+foot+type%3A+A+geometric+morphometric+analysis
  6. Ledoux WR,† Pai S, Shofer JB, Wang Y-N. The association between mechanical and biochemical/histological characteristics in diabetic and non-diabetic plantar soft tissue. J Biomech. 2016 Aug 24. pii: S0021-9290(16)30931-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2016.08.021. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 27623704. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Association+between+Mechanical+and+Biochemical%2FHistological+Characteristics+in+Diabetic+and+Non-Diabetic
  7. Isvilanonda V, Iaquinto JM, Pai S, Mackenzie-Helnwein P, Ledoux WR.†,§ Hyperelastic compressive mechanical properties of the subcalcaneal soft tissue: An inverse finite element analysis. J Biomech. 2016 May 3;49(7):1186-91. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2016.03.003. Epub 2016 Mar 8. PMID: 27040391. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Hyperelastic+compressive+mechanical+properties+of+the+subcalcaneal+soft+tissue
  8. Williams ED, Stebbins MJ, Cavanagh PR, Haynor DR, Chu B, Fassbind MJ, Isvilanonda V, Ledoux WR.†,§  Proc Inst Mech Eng H. 2015 Oct;229(10):732-42. doi: 10.1177/0954411915606150. PMID: 26405098. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=The+design+and+validation+of+a+magnetic+resonance+imaging-compatible+device+for+obtaining+mechanical+properties+of+plantar+soft+tissue+via+gated+acquisition.
  9. Willauer P, Sangeorzan BJ, Whittaker EC, Shofer JB, Ledoux WR. The sensitivity of standard radiographic foot measures to misalignment. Foot Ankle Int. 2014 Dec;35(12):1334-40. doi: 10.1177/1071100714549188. Epub 2014 Sep 18. PubMed PMID: 25237177. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=The+sensitivity+of+standard+radiographic+foot+measures+to+misalignment
  10. Klute GK, Huff E, Ledoux WR. Does activity affect residual limb skin temperatures? Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2014 Oct;472(10):3062-7. doi: 10.1007/s11999-014-3741-4. PubMed PMID: 24964887; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4160497. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=pubmed&DbFrom=pubmed&Cmd=Link&LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&IdsFromResult=24964887
  11. Marchelli GL, Ledoux WR, Isvilanonda V, Ganter MA, Storti DW. Joint-specific distance thresholds for patient-specific approximations of articular cartilage modeling in the first ray of the foot. Med Biol Eng Comput. 2014 Sep;52(9):773-9. doi: 10.1007/s11517-014-1179-1. Epub 2014 Aug 7. PubMed PMID: 25100069. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=pubmed&DbFrom=pubmed&Cmd=Link&LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&IdsFromResult=25100069
  12. Louie PK, Sangeorzan BJ, Fassbind MJ, Ledoux WR. Talonavicular joint coverage and bone morphology between different foot types. J Orthop Res. 2014 Jul;32(7):958-66. doi: 10.1002/jor.22612. Epub 2014 Apr 9. PubMed PMID: 24719271. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=pubmed&DbFrom=pubmed&Cmd=Link&LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&IdsFromResult=24719271
  13. Iaquinto JM, Tsai R, Haynor DR, Fassbind MJ, Sangeorzan BJ, Ledoux WR. Marker-based validation of a biplane fluoroscopy system for quantifying foot kinematics. Med Eng Phys. 2014 Mar;36(3):391-6. doi: 10.1016/j.medengphy.2013.08.013. Epub 2013 Sep 24. PubMed PMID: 24075068. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=pubmed&DbFrom=pubmed&Cmd=Link&LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&IdsFromResult=24075068
  14. Trask DJ, Ledoux WR, Whittaker EC, Roush GC, Sangeorzan BJ. Second metatarsal osteotomies for metatarsalgia: a robotic cadaveric study of the effect of osteotomy plane and metatarsal shortening on plantar pressure. J Orthop Res. 2014 Mar;32(3):385-93. doi: 10.1002/jor.22524. Epub 2013 Nov 14. PubMed PMID: 24243763. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=pubmed&DbFrom=pubmed&Cmd=Link&LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&IdsFromResult=24243763
  15. Vaudreuil NJ, Ledoux WR, Roush GC, Whittaker EC, Sangeorzan BJ. Comparison of transfer sites for flexor digitorum longus in a cadaveric adult acquired flatfoot model. J Orthop Res. 2014 Jan;32(1):102-9. doi: 10.1002/jor.22488. Epub 2013 Sep 21. PubMed PMID: 24115238. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=pubmed&DbFrom=pubmed&Cmd=Link&LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&IdsFromResult=24115238
  16. Ledoux WR, Shofer JB, Cowley MS, Ahroni JH, Cohen V, Boyko EJ. Diabetic foot ulcer incidence in relation to plantar pressure magnitude and measurement location. J Diabetes Complications. 2013 Nov-Dec;27(6):621-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2013.07.004. Epub 2013 Sep 4. PubMed PMID: 24012295; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4227535. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/24012295/?tool=myncbi
  17. Pai S, Vawter PT, Ledoux WR. The effect of prior compression tests on the plantar soft tissue compressive and shear properties. J Biomech Eng. 2013 Sep;135(9):94501. doi: 10.1115/1.4024572. PubMed PMID: 23722991; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3733806. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/23722991/?tool=myncbihttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=pubmed&DbFrom=pubmed&Cmd=Link&LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&IdsFromResult=23722991
  18. Miller AN, Barei DP, Iaquinto JM, Ledoux WR, Beingessner DM. Iatrogenic syndesmosis malreduction via clamp and screw placement. J Orthop Trauma. 2013 Feb;27(2):100-6. doi: 10.1097/BOT.0b013e31825197cb. PubMed PMID: 22549032. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22549032

Presentations

  1. Thorhauer ED, Kindig MW, Fassbind MJ, Sangeorzan BJ, Ledoux WR.§ “Finite helical axis variation between cavus, neutrally aligned, and planus feet under passive loading” Proceedings of the 41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Denver, CO: 2017 (podium presentation)
  2. Pihl CM, Stender CJ, Balasubramanian R, Edinger KM, Sangeorzan BJ, Ledoux WR.§ “Passive engineering mechanism enhancement of a flexor digitorum longus tendon transfer procedure” American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Annual Meeting 2017, Seattle, WA: 2017 (electronic poster (ePoster) presentation)
  3. Benich MR, Ledoux WR, Orendurff MS, Hansen ST, Davitt J, Anderson JG, Bohay D, Coetzee JC, Brage M, Houghton M, Sangeorzan BJ. “Comparison of treatment outcomes of arthrodesis and two generations of ankle replacement implants” American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Annual Meeting 2017, Seattle, WA: 2017 (electronic poster (ePoster) presentation)
  4. Edinger KM, Kindig MW, Pihl CM, Hoopes DM, Ledoux WR,§ Sangeorzan BJ. “3D CT analysis of distal tibiofibular syndesmosis symmetry” Proceedings of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Annual Meeting 2017, Seattle, WA: 2017 (podium presentation)
  5. McKearney D, Stender C, Cook B, Moore E, Gunnell L, Monier B, Sangeorzan B, Ledoux WR.§ “Anterior and posterior misalignment of the talar component in total ankle arthroplasty” Proceedings of the 63rd Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, San Diego, CA: 2017 (poster presentation)
  6. Iaquinto JM, Kindig MW, Haynor DR, Ledoux WR.§ “Evaluating sources of error in ankle kinematics by comparing marker- to bone-based tracking” Proceedings of the 63rd Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, San Diego, CA: 2017 (poster presentation)
  7. Moore ES, Kindig MW, McKearney D, Telfer S, Ledoux WR,§ Sangeorzan BJ. “Hind- and midfoot bone morphology varies with foot type and sex” Proceedings of the 63rd Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, San Diego, CA: 2017 (poster presentation)
  8. Cook BK, Stender CJ, Patthanacharoenphon CG, Sangeorzan BJ, Ledoux WR.§ “Transverse plane rotational misalignment of total ankle arthroplasty alters foot joint kinematics in cadaveric gait simulation” Proceedings of the 63rd Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, San Diego, CA: 2017 (poster presentation)
  9. Wang Y-N, Maxwell A, Brady L, Schade GR, Stender C, Yasser H, Lee F, Ledoux WR, Bailey MR, Wessells H. “Pilot evaluation of histotripsy treatment for peyronies’ disease” Proceedings of the 5th Joint Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America and the Acoustical Society of Japan, Honolulu, HI: 2016 (podium presentation)
  10. Cook BK, Kindig MW, Stender CJ, Beuchel MW, Pangrazzi GJ, Sangeorzan BJ, Ledoux WR.§ “Transverse plane misalignment of ankle arthrodesis minimally changes range of motion of distal foot joints in cadaveric gait simulation” Proceedings of the 40th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Raleigh, NC: 2016 (podium presentation)
  11. Iaquinto JM, Kindig MW, Haynor DR, Ledoux WR.§ “The effect of soft tissue artifact on kinematic measurement – an evaluation of optical marker motion using biplane fluoroscopy” Proceedings of the 2016 Summer Biomechanics, Bioengineering and Biotransport Conference (SB3C2016), National Harbor, MD: 2016 (podium presentation)
  12. Stender CJ, Segal AD, Whittaker EC, Hahn ME, Orendurff MS, Ledoux WR,§ Sangeorzan BJ. “Spatio-temporal and kinematic analysis of ankle arthroplasty versus arthrodesis” Foot International 2016, Proceedings of the 5th International Foot and Ankle Biomechanics Congress, Berlin, Germany: 2016 (poster presentation)
  13. Kindig MW, Iaquinto JM, Ledoux WR.§ “Quantification of first metatarsal-phalangeal joint (MTPJ) kinematics using biplane fluoroscopy” Foot International 2016, Proceedings of the 5th International Foot and Ankle Biomechanics Congress, Berlin, Germany: 2016 (podium presentation)
  14. Edinger KM, Kindig MW, Pihl CM, Sangeorzan BJ, Ledoux WR.§ “3D CT analysis of distal tibiofibular syndesmosis symmetry” Proceedings of the 62nd Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, Orlando, FL: 2016 (poster presentation)
  15. Pihl CM, Stender CJ, Balasubramanian R Edinger KM, Sangeorzan BJ, Ledoux WR.§ “Passive engineering mechanism enhancement of a flexor digitorum longus tendon transfer procedure” Proceedings of the 62nd Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, Orlando, FL: 2016 (podium presentation)
  16. Storti D, Zhang D, Yurtoglu M, Marchelli G, Kindig M, Ledoux W. “Measuring and modeling the motion of volumetrically digitized objects” GPU Technology Conference, San Jose, CA: 2016 (poster presentation)
  17. Isvilanonda V, Iaquinto JM, Kindig MW, Sangeorzan BJ, Ledoux WR.§ “Validation of the subject-specific finite element analysis under quasi-static and dynamic gait conditions” Proceedings of the 39th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Columbus, OH: 2015 (poster presentation)
  18. Williams ED, Stebbins MJ, Cavanagh PR, Haynor DR, Chu B, Fassbind MJ, Isvilanonda V Ledoux WR.§ “Patient-specific mechanical properties of diabetic and healthy plantar soft tissue from gated mri” Proceedings of the 39th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Columbus, OH: 2015 (poster presentation)
  19. Pomeroy SM, Hahn ME, Segal AD, Whittaker EC, Benich M, Ledoux WR, Sangeorzan, BJ. “Prospective gait analysis of ankle arthodesis and arthroplasty” Proceedings of the 39th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Columbus, OH: 2015 (podium presentation)
  20. Wright WA, Ledoux WR, Whittaker E, Hu C, Thuillier D, Sangeorzan BJ. “Dynamic gait simulation with frontal plane misaligned cadaveric ankle arthrodesis”. Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, Las Vegas, NV: 2015 (podium presentation)
  21. Kindig M, Marchelli G, Iaquinto JM, Storti D, Haynor D, Sangeorzan BJ, Ledoux WR. “Model-based validation of a graphics processing unit algorithm to track foot bone kinematics using fluoroscopy”. Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, Las Vegas, NV: 2015 (poster presentation)
  22. Hu C, Benich M, Norvell D, Ledoux W, Sangeorzan B. “Patient activity levels correlate with self-reported outcomes after surgery for end-stage ankle arthritis”. Proceedings of the 2015 American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Las Vegas, NV: 2015 (podium presentation)
  23. Sangeorzan B, Benich M, Ledoux W, Hansen S, Coetzee JC, Davitt J, Anderson J, Bohay D, Maskill J. “Patient satisfaction and physical function improvement following ankle arthrodesis and arthroplasty”. Proceedings of the 2015 American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Las Vegas, NV: 2015 (podium presentation)
  24. Johnson M, Benich M, Ledoux W, Shofer J, Sangeorzan B, Hansen S. “Comparison of ankle arthroplasty and arthrodesis in patients with coronal malalignment”. Proceedings of the 2014 American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society, Chicago, IL: 2014 (podium presentation)
  25. Iaquinto J, Isvilanonda V, Williams E, Stebbins M, Haynor D, Chu B, Cavanagh P, Sangeorzan B, Ledoux W. “Development and preliminary validation of a computational foot model” Proceedings of the 7th World Congress of Biomechanics, Boston, MA: 2014 (podium presentation)
  26. Iaquinto J, Vu QB, Tsai R, Haynor D, Sangeorzan BJ, Ledoux W. “Model-based validation of a biplane fluoroscopy system” Proceedings of the 7th World Congress of Biomechanics, Boston, MA: 2014 (poster presentation)
  27. Ledoux WR, Hahn ME, Whittaker EC, Segal AD, Orendurff MS, 5MR, Sangeorzan BJ. “A three-year prospective trial comparing ankle arthrodesis to arthroplasty” Proceedings of the 7th World Congress of Biomechanics, Boston, MA: 2014 (podium presentation)
  28. Isvilanonda V, Iaquinto JM, Ledoux WR. “Regional mechanical properties of the plantar aponeurosis” Proceedings of the 7th World Congress of Biomechanics, Boston, MA: 2014 (poster presentation)
  29. Iaquinto JM, Tsai R, Vu Q-B, Haynor DR, Sangeorzan BJ, Ledoux WR. “Preliminary model-based validation of a biplane fluoroscopy system” Proceedings of the 4th International Foot and Ankle Biomechanics Congress, Pusan, South Korea: 2014 (podium presentation)
  30. Wahl EP, Ledoux WR, Whittaker EC, Cook B, Sangeorzan BJ. “Dynamic kinematic and kinetic effects of normal and misaligned talonavicular fusions” Proceedings of the 2014 American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, New Orleans, LA: 2014 (poster presentation)
  31. Wahl EP, Ledoux WR, Whittaker EC, Cook B, Sangeorzan BJ. “Dynamic kinematic and kinetic effects of normal and misaligned talonavicular fusions” Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, New Orleans, LA: 2014 (podium presentation)
  32. Wahlberg KJ, Sangeorzan BJ, Vu Q-B D, Fassbind MJ, Bucholtz JR, Ledoux WR. “Facet orientation and bone shape differs among cavus, neutral and planus feet” Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, New Orleans, LA: 2014 (poster presentation)
  33. Isvilanonda V, Iaquinto JM, Williams ED, Cavanagh PR, Haynor DR, Chu B, Ledoux WR. “In vivo patient-specific material properties of the subcalcaneal fat: An inverse finite element analysis” Proceedings of the 37th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Omaha, NB: 2013 (podium presentation)
  34. Kim PH, Coleman NW, Benich M, Shofer J, Doerr N, Ledoux B, Hansen ST, Sangeorzan BJ. “Prospective comparison of ankle arthroplasty and arthrodesis” Proceedings of the 2013 American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Chicago, Il: 2013 (podium presentation)
  35. Willauer P, Sangeorzan B, Whittaker E, Ledoux W. “The effects of misalignment on standard radiographic measures of the foot” Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, San Antonio, TX: 2013 (podium presentation)
  36. Roush GC, Whittaker EC, Meeker J, Apostle K, Sangeorzan BJ, Ledoux WR. “Cadaveric simulation of flatfoot and surgical corrective techniques: Evans versus the Z-osteotomy” Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, San Antonio, TX: 2013 (podium presentation)

Invited Speaker

  1. “Foot biomechanics: in vitro, in silico, in vivo,” Jack Michaels Award for Excellence in VA Research Lecture, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA: May 2016
  2. “Techniques employed in functional and anatomical limb loss prevention,” Foot and Ankle Mini-symposium, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium: January 2015
  3. “A three-year prospective trial comparing ankle arthrodesis to arthroplasty” 2014 World Congress of Biomechanics, Boston, MA: July 2014
  4. “Techniques employed in functional and anatomical limb loss prevention”, University of Salford, Foot and Ankle Biomechanics Research Programme, Manchester, UK: April 2013
  5. “Prediction of diabetic foot ulcer occurrence using commonly available clinical information: What is the role of foot structure and plantar pressure?”, 11th Staffordshire Conference on Clinical Biomechanics, Stoke-on-Trent, UK: April 2013, Keynote speaker
  6. “Mechanical properties of normal and diabetic plantar soft tissue: How internal tissue stresses are altered”, 11th Staffordshire Conference on Clinical Biomechanics, Stoke-on-Trent, UK: April 2013, Keynote speaker


Book Chapters

  1. Ledoux WR, Iaquinto JM. “Normal function and movement” in The Foot and Ankle in Rheumatology, Eds. Philip S. Helliwell, Michael R. Backhouse and Heidi J. Siddle, Oxford University Press, Oxford, England, in press
  2. Ledoux WR. “The biomechanics of aging and diabetic plantar soft tissue” in Mechanical Properties of Aging Tissues, Eds. Riaz Akhtar and Brian Derby, Springer-Verlag London Limited, London, England, 2014
  3. Ledoux WR, Hahn ME. “Lower limb structure, function and locomotion biomechanics” in Orthopaedic Biomechanics, CRC/Taylor and Francis, New York, 2013

Conference Papers

  1. Marchelli G, Haynor D, Ledoux W, Tsai R, Storti D “A flexible toolkit for rapid GPU-based generation of DRRs for 2D-3D registration,” SPIE Medical Imaging, Lake Buena Vista, CA: 2013, paper 8669-47
  2. Marchelli GLS, Haynor DR, Ledoux WR, Ganter MA, Storti DW “Graphical user interface for human intervention in 2D-3D registration of medical images,” 9th International Conference on Multibody Systems, Nonlinear Dynamics, and Control (MSNDC), 2013, DETC2013-13659