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Center for Limb Loss and MoBility

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Research Investigators

Staff Biographies

William Ledoux, Ph.D.


Current Position

Research Career Scientist, VA Center of Excellence for Limb Loss Prevention and Prosthetic Engineering, Seattle, WA

Affiliated Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington

Affiliated Associate Professor, Department of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, University of Washington

Contact Information

VA Puget Sound Health Care System
VA RR&D Center, MS 151
1660 S. Columbian Way, Seattle, WA 98108
Telephone (206) 768-5347 Fax (206) 277-2127
E-mail wrledoux@uw.edu

William Ledoux 


Education

Ph.D. Engineering in Bioengineering, August 1999
University of Pennsylvania, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Philadelphia, PA
Concentrations: musculoskeletal modeling, emphasizing the foot; soft tissue biomechanics; gait analysis

M.S. Engineering in Bioengineering, August 1993
University of Pennsylvania, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Philadelphia, PA
Concentration: rehabilitation engineering

B.S. Biomedical Engineering, May 1992
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, School of Engineering, Troy, NY
Concentration: materials science Minor: management

Dr. Ledoux has helped advise graduate students from Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering and Bioengineering, and has advised five students in the Medical Student Research and Training Program.


Research Interests

Dr. Ledoux's research has been devoted to preventing limb loss, either functionally or anatomically. He has used CT, MRI, motion analysis, and more recently, a custom developed biplane fluoroscope, to quantify reduced lower limb function (i.e., functional limb loss) in different foot types (flat feet and high arched) compared to neutrally aligned feet. He has studied the functional aspects of various orthopedic foot maladies using the custom developed Robotic Gait Simulator. Additionally, he has explored functional differences between ankle fusion and ankle joint replacement for end-stage ankle arthritis. Anatomical limb loss prevention has involved quantifying the mechanical, histological and biochemical differences between normal and diabetic plantar soft tissue and foot ligaments. Dr. Ledoux has also developed a patient-specific finite element foot model, including customized anatomy and tissue properties, for the purpose of quantifying the effects of increased tissue stiffness and foot deformity on internal tissue stresses. Finally, Dr. Ledoux has explored the complex relationship between foot type and diabetic ulceration.


Publications
  1. Willauer P, Sangeorzan BJ, Whittaker EC, Shofer JB, Ledoux WR. The sensitivity of standard radiographic foot measures to misalignment. Foot Ankle Int. 2014 Dec;35(12):1334-40. doi: 10.1177/1071100714549188. Epub 2014 Sep 18. PubMed PMID: 25237177.
  2. Klute GK, Huff E, Ledoux WR. Does activity affect residual limb skin temperatures? Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2014 Oct;472(10):3062-7. doi: 10.1007/s11999-014-3741-4. PubMed PMID: 24964887; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4160497. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=pubmed&DbFrom=pubmed&Cmd=Link&LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&IdsFromResult=24964887
  3. Marchelli GL, Ledoux WR, Isvilanonda V, Ganter MA, Storti DW. Joint-specific distance thresholds for patient-specific approximations of articular cartilage modeling in the first ray of the foot. Med Biol Eng Comput. 2014 Sep;52(9):773-9. doi: 10.1007/s11517-014-1179-1. Epub 2014 Aug 7. PubMed PMID: 25100069. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=pubmed&DbFrom=pubmed&Cmd=Link&LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&IdsFromResult=25100069
  4. Louie PK, Sangeorzan BJ, Fassbind MJ, Ledoux WR. Talonavicular joint coverage and bone morphology between different foot types. J Orthop Res. 2014 Jul;32(7):958-66. doi: 10.1002/jor.22612. Epub 2014 Apr 9. PubMed PMID: 24719271. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=pubmed&DbFrom=pubmed&Cmd=Link&LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&IdsFromResult=24719271
  5. Iaquinto JM, Tsai R, Haynor DR, Fassbind MJ, Sangeorzan BJ, Ledoux WR. Marker-based validation of a biplane fluoroscopy system for quantifying foot kinematics. Med Eng Phys. 2014 Mar;36(3):391-6. doi: 10.1016/j.medengphy.2013.08.013. Epub 2013 Sep 24. PubMed PMID: 24075068. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=pubmed&DbFrom=pubmed&Cmd=Link&LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&IdsFromResult=24075068
  6. Trask DJ, Ledoux WR, Whittaker EC, Roush GC, Sangeorzan BJ. Second metatarsal osteotomies for metatarsalgia: a robotic cadaveric study of the effect of osteotomy plane and metatarsal shortening on plantar pressure. J Orthop Res. 2014 Mar;32(3):385-93. doi: 10.1002/jor.22524. Epub 2013 Nov 14. PubMed PMID: 24243763. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=pubmed&DbFrom=pubmed&Cmd=Link&LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&IdsFromResult=24243763
  7. Vaudreuil NJ, Ledoux WR, Roush GC, Whittaker EC, Sangeorzan BJ. Comparison of transfer sites for flexor digitorum longus in a cadaveric adult acquired flatfoot model. J Orthop Res. 2014 Jan;32(1):102-9. doi: 10.1002/jor.22488. Epub 2013 Sep 21. PubMed PMID: 24115238. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=pubmed&DbFrom=pubmed&Cmd=Link&LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&IdsFromResult=24115238
  8. Ledoux WR, Shofer JB, Cowley MS, Ahroni JH, Cohen V, Boyko EJ. Diabetic foot ulcer incidence in relation to plantar pressure magnitude and measurement location. J Diabetes Complications. 2013 Nov-Dec;27(6):621-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2013.07.004. Epub 2013 Sep 4. PubMed PMID: 24012295; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4227535. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/24012295/?tool=myncbi
  9. Pai S, Vawter PT, Ledoux WR. The effect of prior compression tests on the plantar soft tissue compressive and shear properties. J Biomech Eng. 2013 Sep;135(9):94501. doi: 10.1115/1.4024572. PubMed PMID: 23722991; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3733806. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/23722991/?tool=myncbihttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=pubmed&DbFrom=pubmed&Cmd=Link&LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&IdsFromResult=23722991
  10. Miller AN, Barei DP, Iaquinto JM, Ledoux WR, Beingessner DM. Iatrogenic syndesmosis malreduction via clamp and screw placement. J Orthop Trauma. 2013 Feb;27(2):100-6. doi: 10.1097/BOT.0b013e31825197cb. PubMed PMID: 22549032.
  11. Schaefer KL, Sangeorzan BJ, Fassbind MJ, Ledoux WR. The comparative morphology of idiopathic ankle osteoarthritis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012 Dec 19;94(24):e181. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.L.00063. PubMed PMID: 23318620. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=pubmed&DbFrom=pubmed&Cmd=Link&LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&IdsFromResult=23318620
  12. Isvilanonda V, Dengler E, Iaquinto JM, Sangeorzan BJ, Ledoux WR. Finite element analysis of the foot: model validation and comparison between two common treatments of the clawed hallux deformity. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2012 Oct;27(8):837-44. doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2012.05.005. Epub 2012 Jun 12. PubMed PMID: 22694884.
  13. Segal AD, Shofer J, Hahn ME, Orendurff MS, Ledoux WR, Sangeorzan BJ. Functional limitations associated with end-stage ankle arthritis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012 May 2;94(9):777-83. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.K.01177. PubMed PMID: 22552666. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=pubmed&DbFrom=pubmed&Cmd=Link&LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&IdsFromResult=22552666
  14. Hahn ME, Wright ES, Segal AD, Orendurff MS, Ledoux WR, Sangeorzan BJ. Comparative gait analysis of ankle arthrodesis and arthroplasty: initial findings of a prospective study. Foot Ankle Int. 2012 Apr;33(4):282-9. doi: 10.3113/FAI.2012.0282. PubMed PMID: 22735200.
  15. Weber JR, Aubin PM, Ledoux WR, Sangeorzan BJ. Second metatarsal length is positively correlated with increased pressure and medial deviation of the second toe in a robotic cadaveric simulation of gait. Foot Ankle Int. 2012 Apr;33(4):312-9. doi: 10.3113/FAI.2012.0312. PubMed PMID: 22735203.
  16. Aubin PM, Whittaker E, Ledoux WR. A robotic cadaveric gait simulator with fuzzy logic vertical ground reaction force control. IEEE Transactions on Robotics. 2012 February; 28(1):246-55. doi: 10.1109/TRO.2011.2164958
  17. Pai S, Ledoux WR. The shear mechanical properties of diabetic and non-diabetic plantar soft tissue. J Biomech. 2012 Jan 10;45(2):364-70. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2011.10.021. Epub 2011 Nov 12. PubMed PMID: 22079385; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3335192. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/22079385/?tool=myncbi
  18. Sundara-Rajan K, Bestick A, Rowe GI, Klute GK, Ledoux WR, Mamishev AV. Interfacial stress sensor for biomechanical applications. Meas. Sci Technol.. 2012; 23(8):085701. doi:10.1088/0957-0233/23/8/085701
  19. Hu Y, Ledoux WR, Fassbind M, Rohr ES, Sangeorzan BJ, Haynor D. Multi-rigid image segmentation and registration for the analysis of joint motion from three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging. J Biomech Eng. 2011 Oct;133(10):101005. doi: 10.1115/1.4005175. PubMed PMID: 22070330.
  20. Fassbind MJ, Rohr ES, Hu Y, Haynor DR, Siegler S, Sangeorzan BJ, Ledoux WR. Evaluating foot kinematics using magnetic resonance imaging: from maximum plantar flexion, inversion, and internal rotation to maximum dorsiflexion, eversion, and external rotation. J Biomech Eng. 2011 Oct;133(10):104502. doi: 10.1115/1.4005177. PubMed PMID: 22070336; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3705894. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/22070336/?tool=myncbi
  21. Wang YN, Lee K, Pai S, Ledoux WR. Histomorphometric comparison after fixation with formaldehyde or glyoxal. Biotech Histochem. 2011 Oct;86(5):359-65. doi: 10.3109/10520295.2010.520275. Epub 2010 Sep 21. PubMed PMID: 20854226; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4227596. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/20854226/?tool=myncbi
  22. Wang YN, Lee K, Ledoux WR. Histomorphological evaluation of diabetic and non-diabetic plantar soft tissue. Foot Ankle Int. 2011 Aug;32(8):802-10. PubMed PMID: 22049867; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4227595. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/22049867/?tool=myncbi
  23. Jackson LT, Aubin PM, Cowley MS, Sangeorzan BJ, Ledoux WR. A robotic cadaveric flatfoot analysis of stance phase. J Biomech Eng. 2011 May;133(5):051005. doi: 10.1115/1.4003869. PubMed PMID: 21599096.
  24. Pai S, Ledoux WR. The quasi-linear viscoelastic properties of diabetic and non-diabetic plantar soft tissue. Ann Biomed Eng. 2011 May;39(5):1517-27. doi: 10.1007/s10439-011-0263-z. Epub 2011 Feb 15. PubMed PMID: 21327701; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3072451. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/21327701/?tool=myncbi
  25. Whittaker EC, Aubin PM, Ledoux WR. Foot bone kinematics as measured in a cadaveric robotic gait simulator. Gait Posture. 2011 Apr;33(4):645-50. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2011.02.011. Epub 2011 Apr 1. PubMed PMID: 21458991.
  26. Schmidt KH, Ledoux WR. Quantifying ligament cross-sectional area via molding and casting. J Biomech Eng. 2010 Sep;132(9):091012. doi: 10.1115/1.4001881. PubMed PMID: 20815646. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=pubmed&DbFrom=pubmed&Cmd=Link&LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&IdsFromResult=20815646
  27. Bayomy AF, Aubin PM, Sangeorzan BJ, Ledoux WR. Arthrodesis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint: a robotic cadaver study of the dorsiflexion angle. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2010 Jul 21;92(8):1754-64. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.I.00984. PubMed PMID: 20660239.
  28. Pai S, Ledoux WR. The effect of target strain error on plantar tissue stress. J Biomech Eng. 2010 Jul;132(7):071001. doi: 10.1115/1.4001398. PubMed PMID: 20590279; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3335172. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/20590279/?tool=myncbi
  29. Pai S, Ledoux WR. The compressive mechanical properties of diabetic and non-diabetic plantar soft tissue. J Biomech. 2010 Jun 18;43(9):1754-60. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2010.02.021. Epub 2010 Mar 6. Erratum in: J Biomech. 2011 Mar 15;44(5):992. PubMed PMID: 20207359; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2882497. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/20207359/?tool=myncbi
  30. Blackman AJ, Blevins JJ, Sangeorzan BJ, Ledoux WR. Cadaveric flatfoot model: ligament attenuation and Achilles tendon overpull. J Orthop Res. 2009 Dec;27(12):1547-54. doi: 10.1002/jor.20930. PubMed PMID: 19530145.
  31. Storti D, Ganter MA, Ledoux WR, Ching RP, Hu Y, Haynor D. Wavelet SDF-reps: Solid modeling with volumetric scans. Journal on Computing and Information Science in Engineering . 2009; 9(3):031006-1 - 10. doi: 10.1115/1.3184604
  32. Daines SB, Rohr ES, Pace AP, Fassbind MJ, Sangeorzan BJ, Ledoux WR. Cadaveric simulation of a pes cavus foot. Foot Ankle Int. 2009 Jan;30(1):44-50. doi: 10.3113/FAI.2009.0044. PubMed PMID: 19176185. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=pubmed&DbFrom=pubmed&Cmd=Link&LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&IdsFromResult=19176185
  33. Cowley MS, Boyko EJ, Shofer JB, Ahroni JH, Ledoux WR. Foot ulcer risk and location in relation to prospective clinical assessment of foot shape and mobility among persons with diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2008 Nov;82(2):226-32. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2008.07.025. Epub 2008 Oct 1. PubMed PMID: 18829126.
  34. Aubin PM, Cowley MS, Ledoux WR. Gait simulation via a 6-DOF parallel robot with iterative learning control. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2008 Mar;55(3):1237-40. doi: 10.1109/TBME.2007.908072. PubMed PMID: 18334421.
  35. Wang WC, Ledoux WR, Huang CY, Huang CS, Klute GK, Reinhall PG. Development of a microfabricated optical bend loss sensor for distributive pressure measurement. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2008 Feb;55(2 Pt 1):614-25. doi: 10.1109/TBME.2007.912627. PubMed PMID: 18269997. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=pubmed&DbFrom=pubmed&Cmd=Link&LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&IdsFromResult=18269997
  36. Huff EA, Ledoux WR, Berge JS, Klute GK. Measuring residual limb skin temperatures at the skin-prosthesis interface. Journal of Prosthetics and Orthotics. 2008; 20(4):170-3.
  37. Huanga CY, Wang WC, Wue WJ, Ledoux WR. Composite optical bend loss sensor for pressure and shear measurement. IEEE Sensors Journal. 2007 November; 7(11):1554-65. doi: 10.1109/JSEN.2007.908236
  38. Klute GK, Rowe GI, Mamishev AV, Ledoux WR. The thermal conductivity of prosthetic sockets and liners. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2007 Sep;31(3):292-9. PubMed PMID: 17979015. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=pubmed&DbFrom=pubmed&Cmd=Link&LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&IdsFromResult=17979015
  39. Elias FN, Yuen TJ, Olson SL, Sangeorzan BJ, Ledoux WR. Correction of clawed hallux deformity: comparison of the Jones procedure and FHL transfer in a cadaver model. Foot Ankle Int. 2007 Mar;28(3):369-76. PubMed PMID: 17371661. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=pubmed&DbFrom=pubmed&Cmd=Link&LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&IdsFromResult=17371661
  40. Storti D, Ganter MA, Ledoux WR, Ching RP, Hu Y, Haynor D. Artifact vs. Anatomy: Dealing with conflict of geometric modeling descriptions. SAE Transactions Journal of Passenger Cars: Electronic and Electrical Systems. 2007; 2007-01-2450.
  41. Ledoux WR, Blevins JJ. The compressive material properties of the plantar soft tissue. J Biomech. 2007;40(13):2975-81. Epub 2007 Apr 12. PubMed PMID: 17433335.
  42. Ledoux WR, Rohr ES, Ching RP, Sangeorzan BJ. Effect of foot shape on the three-dimensional position of foot bones. J Orthop Res. 2006 Dec;24(12):2176-86. PubMed PMID: 16921526.
  43. Peery JT, Klute GK, Blevins JJ, Ledoux WR. A three-dimensional finite element model of the transibial residual limb and prosthetic socket to predict skin temperatures. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2006 Sep;14(3):336-43. PubMed PMID: 17009493. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=pubmed&DbFrom=pubmed&Cmd=Link&LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&IdsFromResult=17009493
  44. Blackwood CB, Yuen TJ, Sangeorzan BJ, Ledoux WR. The midtarsal joint locking mechanism. Foot Ankle Int. 2005 Dec;26(12):1074-80. PubMed PMID: 16390642.
  45. Mkandawire C, Ledoux WR, Sangeorzan BJ, Ching RP. Foot and ankle ligament morphometry. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2005 Nov-Dec;42(6):809-20. PubMed PMID: 16680618. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=pubmed&DbFrom=pubmed&Cmd=Link&LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&IdsFromResult=16680618
  46. Ledoux WR, Shofer JB, Smith DG, Sullivan K, Hayes SG, Assal M, Reiber GE. Relationship between foot type, foot deformity, and ulcer occurrence in the high-risk diabetic foot. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2005 Sep-Oct;42(5):665-72. PubMed PMID: 16586192.
  47. Wang WC, Ledoux WR, Sangeorzan BJ, Reinhall PG. A shear and plantar pressure sensor based on fiber-optic bend loss. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2005 May-Jun;42(3):315-25. PubMed PMID: 16187244.
  48. Peery JT, Ledoux WR, Klute GK. Residual-limb skin temperature in transtibial sockets. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2005 Mar-Apr;42(2):147-54. PubMed PMID: 15944879.
  49. Ledoux WR, Sangeorzan BJ. Clinical biomechanics of the peritalar joint. Foot Ankle Clin. 2004 Dec;9(4):663-83, v. Review. PubMed PMID: 15498699.
  50. Ledoux WR, Meaney DF, Hillstrom HJ. A quasi-linear, viscoelastic, structural model of the plantar soft tissue with frequency-sensitive damping properties. J Biomech Eng. 2004 Dec;126(6):831-7. PubMed PMID: 15796342.
  51. Ledoux WR, Shofer JB, Ahroni JH, Smith DG, Sangeorzan BJ, Boyko EJ. Biomechanical differences among pes cavus, neutrally aligned, and pes planus feet in subjects with diabetes. Foot Ankle Int. 2003 Nov;24(11):845-50. PubMed PMID: 14655889.
  52. Olson SL, Ledoux WR, Ching RP, Sangeorzan BJ. Muscular imbalances resulting in a clawed hallux. Foot Ankle Int. 2003 Jun;24(6):477-85. PubMed PMID: 12854668. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=pubmed&DbFrom=pubmed&Cmd=Link&LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&IdsFromResult=12854668
  53. Schildhauer TA, Ledoux WR, Chapman JR, Henley MB, Tencer AF, Routt ML Jr. Triangular osteosynthesis and iliosacral screw fixation for unstable sacral fractures: a cadaveric and biomechanical evaluation under cyclic loads. J Orthop Trauma. 2003 Jan;17(1):22-31. PubMed PMID: 12499964.
  54. Camacho DL, Ledoux WR, Rohr ES, Sangeorzan BJ, Ching RP. A three-dimensional, anatomically detailed foot model: a foundation for a finite element simulation and means of quantifying foot-bone position. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2002 May-Jun;39(3):401-10. PubMed PMID: 12173760.
  55. Ledoux WR, Hillstrom HJ. The distributed plantar vertical force of neutrally aligned and pes planus feet. Gait Posture. 2002 Feb;15(1):1-9. PubMed PMID: 11809575.
  56. Ledoux WR, Hillstrom HJ. Acceleration of the calcaneus at heel strike in neutrally aligned and pes planus feet. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2001 Aug;16(7):608-13. PubMed PMID: 11470303.
  57. Digiovanni CW, Holt S, Czerniecki JM, Ledoux WR, Sangeorzan BJ. Can the presence of equinus contracture be established by physical exam alone? J Rehabil Res Dev. 2001 May-Jun;38(3):335-40. PubMed PMID: 11440265.
  58. Ledoux WR, Hirsch BE, Church T, Caunin M. Pennation angles of the intrinsic muscles of the foot. J Biomech. 2001 Mar;34(3):399-403. PubMed PMID: 11182133.

Presentations (since 2011)
  1. Wright WA, Ledoux WR, Whittaker E, Hu C, Thuillier D, Sangeorzan BJ. “Dynamic Gait Simulation with Frontal Plane Misaligned Cadaveric Ankle Arthrodesis”. Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, Las Vegas, NV: 2015 (podium presentation)
  2. Kindig M, Marchelli G, Iaquinto JM, Storti D, Haynor D, Sangeorzan BJ, Ledoux WR. Model-Based Validation of a Graphics Processing Unit Algorithm to Track Foot Bone Kinematics Using Fluoroscopy”. Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, Las Vegas, NV: 2015 (poster presentation)
  3. Hu C, Benich M, Norvell D, Ledoux W, Sangeorzan B. “Patient Activity Levels Correlate with Self-Reported Outcomes after Surgery for End-Stage Ankle Arthritis”. Proceedings of the 2015 American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Las Vegas, NV: 2015 (podium presentation)
  4. Sangeorzan B, Benich M, Ledoux W, Hansen S, Coetzee JC, Davitt J, Anderson J, Bohay D, Maskill J. “Patient Satisfaction and Physical Function Improvement Following Ankle Arthrodesis and Arthroplasty”. Proceedings of the 2015 American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Las Vegas, NV: 2015 (podium presentation)
  5. Johnson M, Benich M, Ledoux W, Shofer J, Sangeorzan B, Hansen S. “Comparison of Ankle Arthroplasty and Arthrodesis in Patients with Coronal Malalignment”. Proceedings of the 2014 American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society, Chicago, IL: 2014 (podium presentation)
  6. Iaquinto J, Isvilanonda V, Williams E, Stebbins M, Haynor D, Chu B, Cavanagh P, Sangeorzan B, Ledoux W. “Development and preliminary validation of a computational foot model” Proceedings of the 7th World Congress of Biomechanics, Boston, MA: 2014 (podium presentation)
  7. Iaquinto J, Vu QB, Tsai R, Haynor D, Sangeorzan BJ, Ledoux W. “Model-based validation of a biplane fluoroscopy system” Proceedings of the 7th World Congress of Biomechanics, Boston, MA: 2014 (poster presentation)
  8. Ledoux WR, Hahn ME, Whittaker EC, Segal AD, Orendurff MS, 5MR, Sangeorzan BJ. “A three-year prospective trial comparing ankle arthrodesis to arthroplasty” Proceedings of the 7th World Congress of Biomechanics, Boston, MA: 2014 (podium presentation)
  9. Isvilanonda V, Iaquinto JM, Ledoux WR. “Regional mechanical properties of the plantar aponeurosis” Proceedings of the 7th World Congress of Biomechanics, Boston, MA: 2014 (poster presentation)
  10. Iaquinto JM, Tsai R, Vu Q-B, Haynor DR, Sangeorzan BJ, Ledoux WR. “Preliminary model-based validation of a biplane fluoroscopy system” Proceedings of the 4th International Foot and Ankle Biomechanics Congress, Pusan, South Korea: 2014 (podium presentation)
  11. Wahl EP, Ledoux WR, Whittaker EC, Cook B, Sangeorzan BJ. “Dynamic kinematic and kinetic effects of normal and misaligned talonavicular fusions” Proceedings of the 2014 American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, New Orleans, LA: 2014 (poster presentation)
  12. Wahl EP, Ledoux WR, Whittaker EC, Cook B, Sangeorzan BJ. “Dynamic kinematic and kinetic effects of normal and misaligned talonavicular fusions” Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, New Orleans, LA: 2014 (podium presentation)
  13. Wahlberg KJ, Sangeorzan BJ, Vu Q-B D, Fassbind MJ, Bucholtz JR, Ledoux WR. “Facet orientation and bone shape differs among cavus, neutral and planus feet” Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, New Orleans, LA: 2014 (poster presentation)
  14. Isvilanonda V, Iaquinto JM, Williams ED, Cavanagh PR, Haynor DR, Chu B, Ledoux WR. “In vivo patient-specific material properties of the subcalcaneal fat: An inverse finite element analysis” Proceedings of the 37th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Omaha, NB: 2013 (podium presentation)
  15. Kim PH, Coleman NW, Benich M, Shofer J, Doerr N, Ledoux B, Hansen ST, Sangeorzan BJ. “Prospective comparison of ankle arthroplasty and arthrodesis” Proceedings of the 2013 American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Chicago, Il: 2013 (podium presentation)
  16. Willauer P, Sangeorzan B, Whittaker E, Ledoux W. “The effects of misalignment on standard radiographic measures of the foot” Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, San Antonio, TX: 2013 (podium presentation)
  17. Roush GC, Whittaker EC, Meeker J, Apostle K, Sangeorzan BJ, Ledoux WR. “Cadaveric simulation of flatfoot and surgical corrective techniques: Evans versus the Z-osteotomy” Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, San Antonio, TX: 2013 (podium presentation)
  18. Stebbins MJ, Fassbind MJ, Cavanagh PR, Haynor DR, Chu B and Ledoux WR. “An MRI-compatible device for obtaining patient-specific plantar soft tissue material properties” Proceedings of the 36th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Gainsville, FL: 2012 (poster presentation)
  19. Whittaker EC, Roush G and Ledoux WR. “Dynamic cadaveric robotic gait simulation of pes planus” Proceedings of the 36th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Gainsville, FL: 2012 (podium presentation)
  20. Sangeorzan B, Benich M, Shofer J, Ledoux W, Hansen S, Anderson J, Bohay D, Davitt J and Coetzee JC. “Prospective comparison of ankle arthrodesis and ankle arthroplasty, 1 to 3 Year Follow-up” Proceedings of the 2012 Annual Summer Meeting of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society, San, Diego, CA: 2012 (podium presentation)
  21. Iaquinto JM, Tsai R, Fassbind M, Sangeorzan BJ, Haynor DR, and Ledoux WR. “Design and marker-based validation of a biplane fluoroscopy system for studying the foot and ankle” Proceedings of the 2012 ASME Summer Bioengineering Conference, Fajardo, Puerto Rico: 2012 (podium presentation)
  22. Iaquinto JM, Tsai R, Fassbind M, Haynor DR, Sangeorzan BJ, and Ledoux WR. “Preliminary marker-based validation of a novel biplane fluoroscopy system” Proceedings of the 3rd International Foot and Ankle Biomechanics Congress, Sydney, Australia: 2012 (podium presentation)
  23. Pai S, Vawter PT, Ledoux WR. “The effect of prior compression tests on the plantar soft tissue compressive and shear elastic properties” Proceedings of the 3rd International Foot and Ankle Biomechanics Congress, Sydney, Australia: 2012 (poster presentation)
  24. Louie PK, Ledoux WR, Fassbind MJ, Sangeorzan BJ. “Talonavicular joint coverage and talar morphology over different foot types” Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, San Francisco, CA: 2012 (podium presentation)
  25. Vaudreuil NJ, Ledoux WR, Roush GC, Whittaker EC, Sangeorzan BJ. “Comparison of transfer sites for flexor digitorum longus in treatment of posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction” Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, San Francisco, CA: 2012 (poster presentation)
  26. Ledoux WR, Pai S. “The shear mechanical properties of diabetic and non-diabetic plantar soft tissue” Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, San Francisco, CA: 2012 (poster presentation)
  27. Miller AN, Barei DP, Iaquinto J, Ledoux WR, Beingessner DM. “Iatrogenic syndesmosis malreduction via clamp and screw placement” Proceeding of the 27th Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Trauma Association, San Antonio, TX: 2011 (poster presentation)
  28. Isvilanonda V, Dengler E, Ledoux WR. “A finite element model of two surgical procedures for correcting the clawed hallux deformity” Proceedings of the 35th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Long Beach, CA: 2011 (poster presentation)
  29. Pai S, Ledoux WR. “Effect of prior testing on the plantar soft tissue shear properties” Proceedings of the 35th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Long Beach, CA: 2011 (podium presentation)
  30. Whittaker EC, Aubin PM, Ledoux WR. “Changes in foot bony motion under different loading conditions using a cadaveric robotic gait simulator” Proceedings of the 35th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Long Beach, CA: 2011 (poster presentation)
  31. Chamberlain A, Ledoux W, Lovell M, Cavanagh P, Warme W. “Assessing competency of arthroscopic knots after an instructional course” Proceedings of the 8th Biennial International Society of Arthroscopy, Knee Surgery and Orthopaedic Sports Medicine, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: 2011 (e-poster)
  32. Trask DJ, Ledoux WR, Whittaker EC, Roush GC, Sangeorzan BJ. “Second metatarsal osteotomies for metatarsalgia: A robotic cadaveric study of the effect of surgery type and metatarsal shortening on plantar pressure” Proceedings of the 2011 American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, San Diego, CA: 2011 (poster presentation)
  33. Trask DJ, Ledoux WR, Whittaker EC, Roush GC, Sangeorzan BJ. “Second metatarsal osteotomies for metatarsalgia: A robotic cadaveric study of the effect of surgery type and metatarsal shortening on plantar pressure” Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, Long Beach, CA: 2011 (poster presentation)

Invited Speaker (since 2011)
  1. “Techniques employed in functional and anatomical limb loss prevention,” Foot and Ankle Mini-symposium, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium: January 2015
  2. “A three-year prospective trial comparing ankle arthrodesis to arthroplasty” 2014 World Congress of Biomechanics, Boston, MA: July 2014
  3. “Techniques employed in functional and anatomical limb loss prevention”, University of Salford, Foot and Ankle Biomechanics Research Programme, Manchestser, UK: April 2013
  4. “Prediction of diabetic foot ulcer occurrence using commonly available clinical information: What is the role of foot structure and plantar pressure?”, 11th Staffordshire Conference on Clinical Biomechanics, Stoke-on-Trent, UK: April 2013, Keynote speaker
  5. “Mechanical properties of normal and diabetic plantar soft tissue: How internal tissue stresses are altered”, 11th Staffordshire Conference on Clinical Biomechanics, Stoke-on-Trent, UK: April 2013, Keynote speaker
  6. “Obtaining material properties of the plantar soft tissue for a patient-specific finite element model of the foot”, The Bio-Molecular Imaging Center Symposium, University of Washington, Seattle, WA: June 2012
  7. “New techniques for quantifying foot biomechanics”, 2012 Pedorthic Association of Canada Meeting, Whistler, BC, Canada: April 2012, Keynote speaker
  8. “In vivo and in vitro analysis of foot and ankle kinematics: Robotic gait simulation and biplane fluoroscopy”, Department of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta: March 2012
  9. “Clinical applications of cadaveric based gait simulation”, Grand Rounds of the Foot and Ankle Service, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY: January 2012
  10. “In vivo and in vitro analysis of foot and ankle kinematics: Robotic gait simulation and biplane fluoroscopy”, Department of Biomechanics, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY: January 2012
  11. “In vitro analysis of foot and ankle kinematics”, International Foot and Ankle Symposium, Limelette, Belgium: October 2011, Keynote speaker